Geothermal and hydrothermal energy in Ukraine
According to the State Committee for Energy Efficiency, Ukraine has some potential for geothermal energy development. According to various estimates, the economically feasible energy resource of thermal waters of Ukraine is up to 8.4 million tons per year.
Ukraine has great geological potential for the development of geothermal energy. The most favourable geothermal conditions for the development of hydrothermal resources are characterized by Precarpathian (Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, partly Chernivtsi region) and Zakarpattia (Zakarpattia region) depressions, Dnieper-Donetsk basin (Chernihiv, Poltava, Sumy, Kharkiv and Dnipropetrovsk regions), Crimea and Black Sea (Kherson and Odesa regions).
The most promising use of geothermal resources is in the Precarpathian region. The use of geothermal waters is less promising in the Dnieper-Donetsk basin.
In Ukraine, geothermal electricity can be developed in the following areas:
- Medium geothermal power plants (GeoTPPs) with a unit capacity of 10-20 MW based on deposits at temperatures above 120°C
- Small GeoTPPs with a single capacity of 0.05-5 MW with a temperature of 90-12°C
- Combined cycle power plants use geothermal energy and fossil fuels (coal, gas, biomass, peat).
Without state funding in Ukraine, it will be difficult to implement projects for the development of geothermal energy. In this case, “green” bonds are useful.
There are currently no existing GeoTPPs in Ukraine. Currently, only a memorandum has been signed with foreign countries on cooperation in the field of geothermal energy and research into the geothermal potential of Ukraine. The fact that there are no GeoTPPs in Ukraine can be explained, in particular, by the lack of proper regulation of activities in the field of geothermal energy. Due to the impact on the environment, this type of renewable energy is promising if geothermal water is properly disposed of. Ukraine has the tools to pre-assess the consequences of such activities and take appropriate protection measures. For example, there is the Law of Ukraine “On Environmental Impact Assessment”.